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Contents:
  1. The civil war
  2. Autonomy as a start‐up motive
  3. 6 Ways to Encourage Autonomy With Your Employees
  4. How to Boost Productivity: Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose
  5. Does influence beget autonomy? Clarifying the relationship between social and personal power

Very helpful article. I'm taking a self-evolution course right now, and I identified Autonomy as one of my two pivotal personal needs. We are required to write out a DMP definite major purpose statement, and we must weave in our needs.

My guide told me that I didn't have autonomy in my DMP, so I decided to do some research on the meaning and concept of autonomy. Your article made it clear to me that I do desire autonomy. Your article created a clear picture of autonomy, how we are missing it, and how to find more of it. I appreciate you sharing your personal experience of seeing microcompromises in marriage, for that is the area in which I struggle most regarding experiencing autonomy. Just yesterday, i received a phone call from my stepbrother, a person that i don't like very much for various reasons suffice to say he's not the nicest guy ever.

He heard from his father, my stepfather, that i have some troubles at work, and since he's employed in the same company as me, but in a higher position, he wanted to ask me how i'm doing and what i want to do at work. I tried to refuse his help, but he insisted, and said he'll talk with my boss.

The civil war

Now i feel very bad. I wondered if it is because i don't trust him, or because i don't like being helped out of my own merits, but i guess the actual problem is that i felt stripped of my autonomy, since i let someone else take care of those issues for me. I had my plans on how to cope with those issues, but now they don't matter anymore, since a guy that i don't like very much and that i don't want to owe any favor to now will make things for me instead of letting me try.

It's an horrible sensation, i don't feel like i solved anything at all. Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. The Power of Boundaries Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. A Brain Network for Alcoholism? What Makes a Dating Profile Attractive?

Autonomy as a start‐up motive

You're a Kid. Go Play! Alex Lickerman M. The Desire for Autonomy Why our need to make choices freely is so crucial to our happiness. Not so much autonomy Submitted by GoodAtTruth on May 8, - am. But we've created a society that is not healthy and downright anti-human, so unhappyness ensues. I know that feeling Submitted by Matteo on April 21, - pm. Post Comment Your name. E-mail The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.

Notify me when new comments are posted. All comments. Replies to my comment. Leave this field blank. Read Next. The New Psychology of Happiness. Using Denial Effectively. Can You Learn to Make Microcompromises? Autonomy and Collaboration--Not Mere Buzzwords. In cases where people lack representation by a state's government, the unrepresented become a separate people.

Present international law does not recognize ethnic and other minorities as separate peoples, with the notable exception of cases in which such groups are systematically disenfranchised by the government of the state they live in.


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If the "people" are unanimous in their desire for self-determination, it strengthens their claim. For example, the populations of federal units of the Yugoslav federation were considered a people in the breakup of Yugoslavia, although some of those units had very diverse populations. Abulof suggests that self-determination entails the "moral double helix" of duality personal right to align with a people, and the people's right to determine their politics and mutuality the right is as much the other's as the self's.

Thus, self-determination grants individuals the right to form "a people," which then has the right to establish an independent state, as long as they grant the same to all other individuals and peoples. Criteria for the definition of "people having the right of self-determination" was proposed during Kosovo case decision of the International Court of Justice: 1. National self-determination appears to challenge the principle of territorial integrity or sovereignty of states as it is the will of the people that makes a state legitimate. This implies a people should be free to choose their own state and its territorial boundaries.

However, there are far more self-identified nations than there are existing states and there is no legal process to redraw state boundaries according to the will of these peoples. Pavkovic and Radan describe three theories of international relations relevant to self-determination. Allen Buchanan , author of seven books on self-determination and secession, supports territorial integrity as a moral and legal aspect of constitutional democracy. However, he also advances a "Remedial Rights Only Theory" where a group has "a general right to secede if and only if it has suffered certain injustices, for which secession is the appropriate remedy of last resort.

Vita Gudeleviciute holds that in cases of non-self-governing peoples and foreign military occupation the principle of self-determination trumps that of territorial integrity. In cases where people lack representation by a state's government, they also may be considered a separate people, but under current law cannot claim the right to self-determination. On the other hand, she finds that secession within a single state is a domestic matter not covered by international law.

Thus there are no on what groups may constitute a seceding people.

6 Ways to Encourage Autonomy With Your Employees

A number of states have laid claim to territories, which they allege were removed from them as a result of colonialism. This is justified by reference to Paragraph 6 of UN Resolution XV , which states that any attempt "aimed at partial or total disruption of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the purposes and principles of the Charter". This, it is claimed, applies to situations where the territorial integrity of a state had been disrupted by colonisation, so that the people of a territory subject to a historic territorial claim are prevented from exercising a right to self-determination.

This interpretation is rejected by many states, who argue that Paragraph 2 of UN Resolution XV states that "all peoples have the right to self-determination" and Paragraph 6 cannot be used to justify territorial claims. The original purpose of Paragraph 6 was "to ensure that acts of self-determination occur within the established boundaries of colonies, rather than within sub-regions". Further, the use of the word attempt in Paragraph 6 denotes future action and cannot be construed to justify territorial redress for past action. In order to accommodate demands for minority rights and avoid secession and the creation of a separate new state, many states decentralize or devolve greater decision-making power to new or existing subunits or autonomous areas.

More limited measures might include restricting demands to the maintenance of national cultures or granting non-territorial autonomy in the form of national associations which would assume control over cultural matters. This would be available only to groups that abandoned secessionist demands and the territorial state would retain political and judicial control, but only if would remain with the territorially organized state. This includes the question of how an unwanted state can be imposed upon a minority.

He explores five contemporary theories of secession. In "anarcho-capitalist" theory only landowners have the right to secede. In communitarian theory, only those groups that desire direct or greater political participation have the right, including groups deprived of rights, per Allen Buchanan. In two nationalist theories, only national cultural groups have a right to secede.

Australian professor Harry Beran's democratic theory endorses the equality of the right of secession to all types of groups. Unilateral secession against majority rule is justified if the group allows secession of any other group within its territory. Most sovereign states do not recognize the right to self-determination through secession in their constitutions.

Many expressly forbid it. However, there are several existing models of self-determination through greater autonomy and through secession. In liberal constitutional democracies the principle of majority rule has dictated whether a minority can secede. The Supreme Court in Texas v.

White held secession could occur "through revolution, or through consent of the States. The Chinese Communist Party followed the Soviet Union in including the right of secession in its constitution in order to entice ethnic nationalities and Tibet into joining. However, the Party eliminated the right to secession in later years, and had anti-secession clause written into the Constitution before and after the founding the People's Republic of China.

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How to Boost Productivity: Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose

The Constitution of the Union of Burma contained an express state right to secede from the union under a number of procedural conditions. It was eliminated in the constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma officially the "Union of Myanmar". Burma still allows "local autonomy under central leadership". As of the constitutions of Austria, Ethiopia, France, and Saint Kitts and Nevis have express or implied rights to secession.

Switzerland allows for the secession from current and the creation of new cantons. In the case of proposed Quebec separation from Canada the Supreme Court of Canada in ruled that only both a clear majority of the province and a constitutional amendment confirmed by all participants in the Canadian federation could allow secession.


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The draft of the European Union Constitution allowed for the voluntary withdrawal of member states from the union, although the State which wanted to leave could not be involved in the vote deciding whether or not they can leave the Union. As a result of the successful constitutional referendum held in , every municipality in the Principality of Liechtenstein has the right to secede from the Principality by a vote of a majority of the citizens residing in this municipality.

Does influence beget autonomy? Clarifying the relationship between social and personal power

In determining international borders between sovereign states, self-determination has yielded to a number of other principles. The bloody Yugoslav wars in the s were related mostly to border issues because the international community applied a version of uti possidetis juris in transforming the existing internal borders of the various Yugoslav republics into international borders, despite the conflicts of ethnic groups within those boundaries. In the s indigenous populations of the northern two-thirds of Quebec province opposed being incorporated into a Quebec nation and stated a determination to resist it by force.

The border between Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State was based on the borders of existing counties and did not include all of historic Ulster. A Boundary Commission was established to consider re-drawing it. Its proposals, which amounted to a small net transfer to Northern Ireland, were leaked to the press and then not acted upon.

There have been a number of notable cases of self-determination. For more information on past movements see list of historical autonomist and secessionist movements and lists of decolonized nations. Also see list of autonomous areas by country and list of territorial autonomies and list of active autonomist and secessionist movements.